Adolescents and adults show preferences for male and female body shapes consistent with evolutionary theories of reproductive fitness and mate selection. However, when these preferences for females with narrow waists i. To address this knowledge gap, eye-movements were tracked in infants 3—18 months of age during computer presentation of three-dimensional human figures varying in body features thought relevant for reproductive success e. When presented with pairs of figures differing in apparent sex, male and female infants looked significantly longer at the female figure compared to the male figure, a new finding that extends previous research showing preferences for female faces in infancy. When presented with same-sex figures differing in characteristics associated with mate value, male and female infants looked longer at a low mate value male i.
At 6 and 8 years of age, both sexes reported similar WHR preferences for male and female figures, Addult average scores ranging between 0. This procedure made it difficult to tease apart whether infants genuinely matched faces and voices based on gender information or whether they made the match based on idiosyncratic relations between faces and voices. Infant's discrimination of photographs of faces following redundant presentations. These studies also suggest that infants develop more structured representations for female faces than for Adult female infants faces. International Journal of Behavioral Development. Stimuli and Design The stimuli were human figures adapted from a previous investigation of mate selection femmale adults Maner et al.
Sperm makeout. Introduction
- Have a question?
- Always make recommendations by determining needed vaccines based on age Table 1 , assessing for medical conditions and other indications Table 2 , and reviewing special situations Notes.
- Medically reviewed by Drugs.
At five months of age, it seems that babies prefer to listen to the sounds of their peers to the cooing of their mother. Researchers at the University of Quebec tested babies on their preference for different speakers by using a specialized speech synthesizer. They were able to simulate the effects of the human vocal tract—the vocal cords, tongue and mouth—to create vowels with differing pitch and resonance, representing vowels produced by vocal tracts of different sizes.
Simply by turning their heads, the babies indicated which sounds they preferred. The results were striking. And there is no denying that baby talk is important in child development. Babies who hear more high-pitched baby talk from their caregivers have larger vocabularies at two years of age and higher IQs at age seven. But while babies prefer to listen to adult speech when it is produced at a higher pitch , a preference for infant vocalizations over and above this might have important implications for very early language learning.
Authors of the study propose that it might motivate them to vocalize more in the first months of life, which could promote the transition to babble production just a few months later. Earlier onset of stable babbling leads to earlier word production and a larger vocabulary in the first two years of life. Perception of consonants produced in their own babble may help infants filter the speech stream into something more manageable. Studies have shown that infants prefer to listen to words that match the sounds produced in their babble.
Studies of deaf babies have shown that they do babble but they start babbling much later than hearing infants. Without feedback on their own babble production, deaf infants typically cease to babble after a few months.
These studies have allowed us to piece together a more comprehensive picture of how human language emerges, taking into account the importance of infant vocalization long before they produce their first word. Babies learn from the adult world around them, but they also learn from their own early vocalizations. These new findings suggest that this begins much earlier than we previously thought.
Perhaps language production does not start with words or even babble, but with vocalizations that begin long before the first speech-like sounds are produced. This article was originally published on The Conversation.
Read the original article. Skip to navigation Skip to content. Babble teaches babies to talk But while babies prefer to listen to adult speech when it is produced at a higher pitch , a preference for infant vocalizations over and above this might have important implications for very early language learning.
The organization "Diaper Pail Friends" was established in San Francisco, growing to approximately 3, members in through magazine articles, books, talk shows and the Internet. Comments : -A course of therapy is defined as 3 doses; if ductus arteriosus closes or has significantly reduced in size after completion of the first course, no further doses are needed. Evaluation of epoetin supplemented with oral iron in patients with solid malignancies and chronic anemia not receiving anticancer treatment. Heme iron has higher bioavailability than nonheme iron, and other dietary components have less effect on the bioavailability of heme than nonheme iron [ 3 , 4 ]. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.
Adult female infants. Navigation menu
An estimated , older Americans have NPH. A data review by the University of Utah found that, in , hydrocephalus accounted for 0. Some estimates report one to two of every 1, babies are born with hydrocephalus.
The causes of hydrocephalus are still not well understood. Hydrocephalus may result from inherited genetic abnormalities such as the genetic defect that causes aqueductal stenosis or developmental disorders such as those associated with neural tube defects including spina bifida and encephalocele.
Other possible causes include complications of premature birth such as intraventricular hemorrhage, diseases such as meningitis, tumors, traumatic head injury, or subarachnoid hemorrhage, which block the exit of CSF from the ventricles to the cisterns or eliminate the passageway for CSF within the cisterns. Symptoms of hydrocephalus vary with age, disease progression, and individual differences in tolerance to the condition. For example, an infant's ability to compensate for increased CSF pressure and enlargement of the ventricles differs from an adult's.
The infant skull can expand to accommodate the buildup of CSF because the sutures the fibrous joints that connect the bones of the skull have not yet closed. In infancy, the most obvious indication of hydrocephalus is often a rapid increase in head circumference or an unusually large head size.
Other symptoms may include vomiting, sleepiness, irritability, downward deviation of the eyes also called "sun setting" , and seizures. Older children and adults may experience different symptoms because their skulls cannot expand to accommodate the buildup of CSF.
Symptoms may include headache followed by vomiting, nausea, blurred or double vision, sun setting of the eyes, problems with balance, poor coordination, gait disturbance, urinary incontinence, slowing or loss of developmental progress, lethargy, drowsiness, irritability, or other changes in personality or cognition including memory loss.
An individual with this type of hydrocephalus may have a general slowing of movements or may complain that his or her feet feel "stuck. Doctors may use a variety of tests, including brain scans such as computed tomography CT and magnetic resonance imaging MRI , a spinal tap or lumbar catheter, intracranial pressure monitoring, and neuropsychological tests, to help them accurately diagnose normal pressure hydrocephalus and rule out any other conditions.
The symptoms described in this section account for the most typical ways in which progressive hydrocephalus is noticeable, but it is important to remember that symptoms vary significantly from person to person. Hydrocephalus is diagnosed through clinical neurological evaluation and by using cranial imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, CT, MRI, or pressure-monitoring techniques.
Hydrocephalus is most often treated by surgically inserting a shunt system. A shunt is a flexible but sturdy plastic tube. A shunt system consists of the shunt, a catheter, and a valve. A valve located along the catheter maintains one-way flow and regulates the rate of CSF flow. A limited number of individuals can be treated with an alternative procedure called third ventriculostomy. In this procedure, a neuroendoscope — a small camera that uses fiber optic technology to visualize small and difficult to reach surgical areas — allows a doctor to view the ventricular surface.
Shunt systems are imperfect devices. Complications may include mechanical failure, infections, obstructions, and the need to lengthen or replace the catheter. Generally, shunt systems require monitoring and regular medical follow up.
When complications occur, subsequent surgery to replace the failed part or the entire shunt system may be needed. Some complications can lead to other problems such as overdraining or underdraining. Overdraining occurs when the shunt allows CSF to drain from the ventricles more quickly than it is produced.
Overdraining can cause the ventricles to collapse, tearing blood vessels and causing headache, hemorrhage subdural hematoma , or slit-like ventricles slit ventricle syndrome.
Underdraining occurs when CSF is not removed quickly enough and the symptoms of hydrocephalus recur. Overdrainage and underdrainage of CSF are addressed by adjusting the drainage pressure of the shunt valve; if the shunt has an adjustable pressure valve these changes can be made by placing a special magnet on the scalp over the valve.
In addition to the common symptoms of hydrocephalus, infections from a shunt may also produce symptoms such as a low-grade fever, soreness of the neck or shoulder muscles, and redness or tenderness along the shunt tract. When there is reason to suspect that a shunt system is not functioning properly for example, if the symptoms of hydrocephalus return , medical attention should be sought immediately.
The prognosis for individuals diagnosed with hydrocephalus is difficult to predict, although there is some correlation between the specific cause of the hydrocephalus and the outcome. Prognosis is further clouded by the presence of associated disorders, the timeliness of diagnosis, and the success of treatment. The degree to which relief of CSF pressure following shunt surgery can minimize or reverse damage to the brain is not well understood.
Affected individuals and their families should be aware that hydrocephalus poses risks to both cognitive and physical development. However, many children diagnosed with the disorder benefit from rehabilitation therapies and educational interventions and go on to lead normal lives with few limitations. Treatment by an interdisciplinary team of medical professionals, rehabilitation specialists, and educational experts is critical to a positive outcome.
Left untreated, progressive hydrocephalus may be fatal. The symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus usually get worse over time if the condition is not treated, although some people may experience temporary improvements.
Get Email Updates. Download Schedules App. Recommended vaccination for adults who meet age requirement, lack documentation of vaccination, or lack evidence of past infection. Recommended vaccination for adults with an additional risk factor or another indication.
Administer recommended vaccines if vaccination history is incomplete or unknown. Do not restart or add doses to vaccine series for extended intervals between doses. For vaccine recommendations for persons age 0 through 18 years, see the Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedule. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Immunization Schedules. Section Navigation.
Table 1. Minus Related Pages. By age.
Baby X | SpringerLink
An infant from the Latin word infans , meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless" is the more formal or specialised synonym for " baby ", the very young offspring of a human.
The term may also be used to refer to juveniles of other organisms. A newborn is, in colloquial use, an infant who is only hours, days, or up to one month old. In medical contexts, newborn or neonate from Latin, neonatus , newborn refers to an infant in the first 28 days after birth;  the term applies to premature , full term , and postmature infants; before birth, the term " fetus " is used. The term "infant" is typically applied to young children under one year of age; however, definitions may vary and may include children up to two years of age.
When a human child learns to walk, the term " toddler " may be used instead. In British English , an infant school is for children aged between four and seven. As a legal term, "infancy" continues from birth until age A newborn's shoulders and hips are wide, the abdomen protrudes slightly, and the arms and legs are relatively long with respect to the rest of their body.
In first world nations, the average total body length of newborns are Ways to measure a baby's length is to lay him down and stretch a measuring tape from the top of his head to the bottom of his heel. Measure the circumference of your baby's head also. In developed countries, the average birth weight of a full-term newborn is approximately 3.
A newborn's head is very large in proportion to the body, and the cranium is enormous relative to his or her face.
The two largest are the diamond-shaped anterior fontanel, located at the top front portion of the head, and the smaller triangular-shaped posterior fontanel, which lies at the back of the head. Later in the child's life, these bones will fuse together in a natural process. A protein called noggin is responsible for the delay in an infant's skull fusion. During labour and birth, the infant's skull changes shape to fit through the birth canal , sometimes causing the child to be born with a misshapen or elongated head.
It will usually return to normal on its own within a few days or weeks. Special exercises sometimes advised by physicians may assist the process. Some newborns have a fine, downy body hair called lanugo. It may be particularly noticeable on the back, shoulders, forehead, ears and face of premature infants. Lanugo disappears within a few weeks. Infants may be born with full heads of hair; others, particularly caucasian infants, may have very fine hair or may even be bald.
Amongst fair-skinned parents, this fine hair may be blonde, even if the parents are not. Infants hair color and texture change. Red can give way to blond.
Curly can go straight and baby's thick, dark hair could make its reappearance a lot sparser and lighter. The scalp may also be temporarily bruised or swollen, especially in hairless newborns, and the area around the eyes may be puffy.
Immediately after birth, a newborn's skin is often grayish to dusky blue in color. As soon as the newborn begins to breathe, usually within a minute or two, the skin's color reaches its normal tone. Newborns are wet, covered in streaks of blood, and coated with a white substance known as vernix caseosa , which is hypothesised to act as an antibacterial barrier.
The newborn may also have Mongolian spots , various other birthmarks , or peeling skin, particularly on the wrists, hands, ankles, and feet. A newborn's genitals are enlarged and reddened, with male infants having an unusually large scrotum. The breasts may also be enlarged, even in male infants. This is caused by naturally occurring maternal hormones and is a temporary condition. Females and even males may actually discharge milk from their nipples sometimes called witch's milk , or a bloody or milky-like substance from the vagina.
In either case, this is considered normal and will disappear with time. The umbilical cord of a newborn is bluish-white in color. The umbilical stub will dry out, shrivel, darken, and spontaneously fall off within about 3 weeks.
This will later become a belly-button after it heals. Occasionally, hospitals may apply triple dye to the umbilical stub to prevent infection , which may temporarily color the stub and surrounding skin purple. The umbilical cord contains three vessels: two arteries and one vein. The two arteries carry blood from the baby to the placenta while one vein carries blood back to the baby.
Infants cry as a form of basic instinctive communication. Breastfeeding is the recommended method of feeding by all major infant health organizations. Infants are born with a sucking reflex allowing them to extract the milk from the nipples of the breasts or the nipple of the baby bottle , as well as an instinctive behavior known as rooting with which they seek out the nipple. Sometimes a wet nurse is hired to feed the infant, although this is rare, especially in developed countries. The foundations of optimum health, growth, and neurodevelopment across the lifespan are established in the first days of life.
As infants grow, food supplements are added. Many parents choose commercial, ready-made baby foods to supplement breast milk or formula for the child, while others adapt their usual meals for the dietary needs of their child. Whole cow's milk can be used at one year, but lower-fat milk is not recommended until the child is 2 to 3 years old. Weaning is the process through which breast milk is eliminated from the infant's diet through the introduction of solid foods in exchange for milk.
Children need more sleep than adults—up to 18 hours for newborn babies, with a declining rate as the child ages. Until babies learn to walk, they are carried in the arms, held in slings or baby carriers, or transported in baby carriages or strollers. Most industrialized countries have laws requiring child safety seats for babies in motor vehicles. Infants respond to the sound of snake hissing, angry voices of adults, the crackling sound of a fire, thunder, and the cries of other infants.
They have a drop in heart rate, their eyes blinking, increased turning toward the speakers or parent, all of these indicating that they were paying more attention. This is believed by some [ who? Babies' ability to accurately locate sounds is refined during their first year. Studies have shown that infants who have been the recipients of positive touch experience more benefits as they develop emotionally and socially.
Experiments have been done with infants up to four months of age using both positive touch stroking or cuddling and negative touch poking, pinching or tickling.
The infants who received the positive touch cried less often and also vocalized and smiled more than the infants who were touched negatively. Infants who were the recipients of negative touching have been linked with emotional and behavioral problems later in life. A lower amount of physical violence in adults has been discovered in cultures with greater levels of positive physical touching.
The infant is undergoing many adaptations to extrauterine life , and its physiological systems, such as the immune system , are far from fully developed. Potential diseases of concern during the neonatal period include:. Infant mortality is the death of an infant in the first year of life, often expressed as the number of deaths per live births infant mortality rate. Major causes of infant mortality include dehydration , infection , congenital malformation and SIDS. This epidemiological indicator is recognized as a very important measure of the level of health care in a country because it is directly linked with the health status of infants, children, and pregnant women as well as access to medical care, socioeconomic conditions, and public health practices.
There is a positive relationship between national wealth and good health. The rich and industrialized countries of the world, prominently Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Japan, spend a large proportion of their wealthy budget on the health care system. As, a result, their health care systems are very sophisticated, with many physicians, nurses, and other health care experts servicing the population. Thus, infant mortality is low. On the other hand, a country such as Mexico, which spends disproportionately less of its budget on healthcare, suffers from high mortality rates.
This is because the general population is likely to be less healthy. For instance, non-Hispanic black women have an infant mortality rate of Attachment theory is primarily an evolutionary and ethological theory whereby the infant or child seeks proximity to a specified attachment figure in situations of alarm or distress for the purpose of survival.
Attachment is not the same as love or affection although they often go together. Attachment and attachment behaviors tend to develop between the age of 6 months and 3 years. Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant, and who remain as consistent caregivers for some time.
Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment, which in turn lead to 'internal working models' which will guide the individual's feelings, thoughts, and expectations in later relationships.
A lack of attachment or a seriously disrupted capacity for attachment could potentially amount to serious disorders. Infants develop distinct relationships to their mothers, fathers, siblings, and non-familial caregivers. Babyhood is a critical period in personality development when the foundations of adult personality are laid.
Many airlines refuse boarding for all babies aged under 7 days for domestic flights or 14 days for international flights. Asiana Airlines allows babies to board international flights at 7 days of age. Garuda Indonesia disallows all babies under the age of 14 days to board any flights. Delta Air Lines allows infants to travel when they are less than 7 days old when they present a physician travel approval letter. Skywest will not allow an infant less than 8 days old on board.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the very young child. For other uses, see Infant disambiguation. For other uses, see Baby disambiguation , Newborn disambiguation , and Babyhood disambiguation. Developmental stage theories. Play media. Main article: Adaptation to extrauterine life.
Further information: Newborn care and safety. Further information: Infant bathing.